What is School Refusal & School Anxiety?
School anxiety in teenagers refers to the feelings of nervousness, worry, or fear that some students experience in regards to school or academic-related situations. A student may become so overwhelmed with worry about school that they refuse to attend. When this anxiety becomes so intense that your teen consistently refuses to attend school, it's referred to as school refusal.
School refusal and school anxiety often occur together and can exacerbate each other. School refusal can increase anxiety as your teenager may worry about the consequences of missing school and falling behind in their academics.
In some cases, the underlying cause of the anxiety is related to specific school-related events or situations, such as bullying, poor grades, or conflicts with teachers or peers. In other cases, your teen's struggles may not be unique to the school setting, such as social anxiety, depression, or trauma. Addressing the root cause of school anxiety can help to reduce both the anxiety and stop the school refusal behavior.
Signs Your Teen May Need Treatment for School Anxiety & School Refusal:
As a parent, it can be concerning to see your once eager and motivated student suddenly reluctant to attend school. If this is accompanied by feelings of nervousness, worry, or fear related to school or academic situations, it may indicate the presence of school refusal and school anxiety.
Here are some signs of school refusal and school anxiety in teens:
- Consistently avoiding, delaying, or refusing to go to school
- Repeatedly calling in sick or feigning illness to stay home from school
- Complaints of physical symptoms such as headaches, stomachaches, or dizziness before or during school
- Difficulty sleeping or excessive worrying about school
- Decreased interest in school or school activities
- Difficulty concentrating, paying attention in class, or completing schoolwork
- Crying, angry outbursts, or temper tantrums related to school or academic situations
- Increased irritability, frustration, or tearfulness
- Changes in appetite or excessive eating or drinking habits
- Withdrawal from friends or social activities
- Difficulty separating from parents or guardians in the morning
- Excessive worrying about grades, performance, or pleasing others
- Perfectionism or rigid thinking around school and academic expectations
- Refusing to complete schoolwork or participate in school events.
Parents should consider seeking treatment for their teenager if their struggles with school anxiety and school refusal are having a significant impact on their daily life, or are irreparably damaging their future. If the behaviors and symptoms persistently interfere with daily life, it is important for parents to seek help from a mental health professional who can diagnose and treat school anxiety and school refusal.
Types of School Refusal & School Anxiety in Teenagers
Recognizing the signs of school refusal and school anxiety in teenagers is crucial for ensuring their academic and emotional well-being, as early intervention can help to mitigate the negative impact of these conditions on their daily life and future prospects.
Some of the most common types of school refusal in teenagers include:
- Generalized school refusal: a persistent refusal to attend school for an extended period of time, without a specific trigger or reason
- Specific or situational school refusal: a refusal to attend school in response to specific events or situations, such as a change in routine or school environment, or a traumatic event at school; or because of a fear of bullying, academic pressure, or conflict with peers or teachers.
- Morning school refusal: a refusal to go to school in the morning, often due to anxiety or fear related to the start of the school day
- Selective school refusal: a refusal to attend certain classes, subjects, or activities, often due to specific phobias or anxieties related to these areas
Some of the most common types of school anxiety in teens include:
- Test anxiety: nervousness or fear related to taking exams or assessments
- Performance anxiety: fear of not meeting expectations or making mistakes in academic or school-related activities
- Social anxiety: fear of negative evaluation or embarrassment in social situations, including school and academic situations
- Separation anxiety: distress related to being away from a parent or caregiver, which can extend to the school environment
- Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): excessive and persistent worry about a variety of topics, including school and academic performance
- Panic disorder: sudden and intense episodes of fear, which can occur in school-related situations
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): repetitive thoughts and behaviors related to academic or school-related concerns
- Phobia: intense fear related to a specific aspect of school, such as speaking in front of a class, or using public restrooms at school
School refusal and school anxiety in teenagers are complex issues and can be caused by a variety of factors, and can co-occur with other mental health conditions including depression, trauma, and behavioral problems. It is best to consult a mental health professional who can properly diagnose what is happening with your teenager.
What Causes School Anxiety in Teens?
There can be several factors that contribute to school anxiety in teenagers, including:
- Academic pressure: the fear of not meeting expectations or performing poorly in school can lead to anxiety and stress
- Social and peer pressure: the fear of not fitting in or being rejected by peers can contribute to social anxiety and school refusal
- Bullying: exposure to bullying or harassment can cause trauma and anxiety, leading to school refusal
- Family stress: issues such as family conflict, parental separation, or financial difficulties can contribute to anxiety and school refusal in teens
- Learning difficulties: struggling with schoolwork or a specific subject can lead to feelings of frustration and low self-esteem, which can contribute to school anxiety and school refusal
- Medical conditions: some medical conditions, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or sleep disorders, can contribute to school anxiety and school refusal
- Pre-existing or co-occurring mental health conditions: school anxiety can co-occur with or be caused by other mental health conditions like social anxiety, panic attacks, OCD, depression, etc
- Trauma: exposure to traumatic events, such as abuse, violence, or natural disasters, can cause anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which can contribute to school refusal
It is important to note that the cause of school anxiety and school refusal can vary for each individual and can be a combination of multiple factors.
Importance of Early Intervention & Treatment for School Refusal
Early intervention and treatment can play a crucial role in mitigating the negative impact of school refusal and school anxiety on teenagers. Some of the benefits of early intervention include:
- Improving academic outcomes: early treatment can help to reduce school refusal and improve attendance, allowing teenagers to catch up on missed schoolwork and avoid falling behind in their academics.
- Alleviating symptoms: early treatment can help to alleviate symptoms of anxiety and school refusal, improving the overall quality of life for the teenager.
- Preventing future problems: early intervention can help to prevent the development of more serious mental health issues, such as depression and anxiety, and reduce the risk of long-term damage to the teenager's future prospects.
- Improving family dynamics: early treatment can help to improve communication and understanding within the family, reducing conflict and stress for both the teenager and the parents.
- Building resilience: early treatment can help to develop coping skills and resilience in the teenager, allowing them to better manage future stressors and challenges.
Not Seeking Anxiety Treatment Can Be Harmful:
The Effects of Untreated School Anxiety & School Refusal on Teens
Lack of school refusal treatment may stem from stigma associated with mental health, lack of access to care, or simply not knowing where to go for help. But the longer it takes for your teen to receive help, the more difficult their recovery can be. Delays in treatment time can cause other serious consequences too. Without treatment, school anxiety can have the following effect on teens:
Short-term effects can include:
- Missed school and decreased academic performance: school refusal and anxiety can lead to increased absenteeism, which can negatively impact the teenager's grades and future prospects.
- Increased stress and anxiety: untreated school refusal and anxiety can lead to an increase in symptoms, making it even more difficult for the teenager to attend school and participate in daily activities.
- Strained relationships: untreated school refusal and anxiety can cause conflict within the family and with peers, leading to strained relationships and social isolation.
- Increased risk of depression and other mental illnesses: untreated school refusal and anxiety can increase the risk of depression and other mental illnesses, which can have serious consequences for the teenager's future prospects.
Long-term effects can include:
- Decreased educational attainment: untreated school refusal and anxiety can result in decreased educational attainment, reducing the teenager's future career opportunities and earning potential.
- Mental health issues: untreated school refusal and anxiety can increase the risk of developing more serious mental health issues, such as depression and anxiety disorders.
- Poor social and personal relationships: untreated school refusal and anxiety can lead to poor social and personal relationships, reducing the teenager's overall sense of well-being and happiness.
- Health problems: untreated school refusal and anxiety can contribute to physical health problems, such as sleep disturbances and digestive issues, and reduce overall health and well-being.
Early Intervention Is Important For Healing School Anxiety in Teens
Early intervention refers to recognizing the warning signs of school refusal and school anxiety in teens and acting before it gets worse.
Early intervention in the treatment of school refusal in teenagers speeds up the healing process by addressing the issue at its earliest stage, before it has a chance to escalate and cause more serious problems. Here are a few ways that early intervention can help:
- Reduces the duration of the problem: early treatment can help reduce the duration of school refusal, preventing it from becoming a chronic issue that interferes with the teenager's education and future prospects.
- Helps to identify the underlying cause: early intervention can help identify the underlying cause of school refusal, whether it be anxiety, bullying, or other factors, which can be addressed more effectively in treatment.
- Minimizes missed school: early intervention can minimize the amount of school that is missed, reducing the negative impact on the teenager's academic performance and future prospects.
- Improves mental health: early intervention can improve the teenager's mental health, reducing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and other mental health issues that may be contributing to school refusal.
- Prevents negative habits from becoming established: Early intervention can also prevent negative coping behaviors (also called maladaptive coping mechanisms) from taking root and becoming ingrained habits.
- Promotes positive outcomes: early intervention can promote positive outcomes, such as improved school attendance, academic performance, and mental health, which can improve the teenager's quality of life and future prospects.
By addressing school refusal and anxiety early, parents and mental health professionals can help teenagers and their families overcome the issue more quickly and effectively, promoting positive outcomes and reducing the impact of this serious problem.
Nature-Based Short-Term Residential Treatment
If your teenager is struggling with school refusal or school anxiety, you may be seeking effective ways to help them overcome these challenges and reclaim their educational journey. At ThreePeaks residential treatment program, we recognize the unique difficulties associated with school-related anxieties and tailor each student's experience to meet their specific needs.
Our comprehensive short-term program integrates evidence-based therapies with the transformative power of nature, offering a holistic approach to addressing school refusal and anxiety. Led by experienced therapists specializing in educational support, our dedicated team provides personalized care to empower each student.
Throughout the program, your teenager will engage in therapeutic activities such as outdoor adventures and experiential learning, guided by their therapist to address their school-related anxieties. By immersing in a simplified environment away from daily distractions, teens can focus on building resilience and developing effective coping strategies. The natural surroundings serve as a metaphorical backdrop for their personal growth, with the challenges faced during treatment directly applicable to real-life educational obstacles.
One of the significant advantages of our program is its emphasis on fostering self-empowerment and equipping teens with the skills they need for sustained progress beyond the program's duration. Our approach is designed to be a transformative stepping stone towards lasting recovery, promoting independence rather than fostering dependence.
We understand that selecting the right treatment program for your teenager is a weighty decision, and we are here to offer unwavering support throughout the entire process. Our compassionate team is available to address any inquiries and provide further insights into our program. We firmly believe that with the right guidance and support, your teenager can overcome school refusal and anxiety, forging a path toward academic success and overall well-being. Contact us today to learn how we can help your family.
Benefits of a Nature-Based Short-Term Residential Treatment Program
Being immersed in nature can have a profound impact on a teenager. It improves their mental, emotional, and physical health. Combined with a proven clinical approach, our therapeutic experience helps teens overcome school anxiety. Here are specific benefits your family can expect to see while your teen is in nature-based short-term residential treatment.
The first stage of effective short-term residential treatment focuses on assessment and stabilization.
By observing your teen in a novel environment, our experienced therapists gain a deep understanding of what is really happening with your child. Research indicates accurate mental health assessments can lead to a 20% reduction in the number of days in treatment.
Mental health stabilization provides a safe environment to deescalate your teen’s level of distress and/or reduce their acute symptoms of mental illness. Until teens feel genuinely safe, they cannot begin to heal. One therapeutic modality emphasizes that “Cues of safety are the treatment” and “safety is defined by feeling safe and not simply by the removal of threat.” It is not enough to merely tell a teen in crisis that they are mentally and emotionally safe, they must actually feel and believe it.
Once your teen feels safe, our nature-based residential treatment program provides a novel and challenging environment that disrupts their unhealthy patterns and behaviors. Behaviors that either:
- cause your teen's mental & emotional health struggles
- or that your teen has developed as a negative way of coping with their struggles.
The second stage of an effective residential treatment program focuses on engaging teens in the therapeutic process and empowering them with the skills needed to thrive.
1. Engaging Teens in Therapy (even if they’ve been resistant to it before)
The ThreePeaks Ascent treatment program is designed to re-engage teens in healthy adolescent development. When your teen attends a short-term residential program, they are taken away from negative distractions they may have at home. They engage in treatment in a way that would not be possible in any other setting.
Your teen will participate in individual, group, and family therapy sessions while in treatment. This allows them to process their behavior as well as make changes in their personal life and family relationships. They are also able to learn from their peers, realize they are not alone in their struggles, and gain motivation to make changes.
We've found that by the time of discharge, 90% of teens were actively engaged in treatment. When contacted six months after treatment, most of these teens maintained the motivational progress they made during treatment.
2. Empowering Teens Through Skill Development
As your teen engages in the therapeutic process, they’ll start to see huge progress. But for long-term healing, it is not enough to only alleviate your teen’s struggles, we must also empower them with the skills needed to thrive in life. These skills include:
- Self-awareness skills like a growth mindset, identifying one's feelings, developing interests & sense of purpose
- Self-management skills like emotional regulation, self-motivation, resilience, setting & achieving goals, planning & time management
- Responsible decision-making skills like showing curiosity & open-mindedness, anticipating & evaluating the consequences of one’s actions, internal locus of control
- Relationship skills like communicating effectively, seeking & offering support, resolving conflicts constructively
- Social awareness skills like showing empathy & compassion for others, taking others’ perspective, recognizing strengths in others
Your teen is powerful, intelligent, and capable. They are among the leaders of tomorrow. That is why the third stage of our short-term residential treatment program focuses on helping teens redirect their previously misused potential toward developing mastery in life.
Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche observed years ago, “Happiness is the feeling that power is increasing—that resistance is being overcome.” When teens develop competence and mastery they:
- gain self-reliance and self-confidence
- become more resilient
- have a greater sense of meaning and purpose
- and better resist negative emotions.
Overall, building mastery helps teens develop a positive mindset. Because they feel competent and in control, they go from feeling, “I’m not capable” to “I can do this!”
About the Author
Steven DeMille, Ph.D. LCMHC
Steven DeMille is the Executive Director of ThreePeaks Ascent. He is a Licensed Mental Health Counselor. His educational experience includes an MA in Mental Health Counseling and a Ph.D. in Counselor Education and Supervision. His research focus is on Nature-Based Short-Term Residential Treatment, nature, adolescent development, and counseling ethics. He is actively involved in the counseling and psychology profession and holds regional and national leadership positions. He publishes and presents on Nature-Based Short-Term Residential Treatment and the use of the outdoors. This is done around the world at the national and international conference levels.
Every teen’s strengths and challenges are different. Complete the no-obligation teen assessment below to help us understand your family’s needs.
We respect your privacy and will never share your information.
I’m Not Sure Where to Start.
We’re here to help - take the first step and contact us to see if Nature-Based Short-Term Residential Treatment could be the path to healing for your family.